There are few terms more misused in the antique business than "attributed to". Most major auction houses now have a fairly high bar before they decide to add the "attributed to" label. Many dealers, however, set the bar ridiculously low. Similarity to a signed example, alone, is never enough to make an attribution. Take, for instance, the fruit-wood desk chair shown above. I purchased it a Hotel Drouot a few years ago. It is circa 1820-1830 from both form and construction. Now compare it to the black and white photograph of a chair made by J.J. Werner for the Tuileries Palace during the Restauration. The stamped Werner chair is gilded and more complex, but it is known that Werner frequently used fruit-wood in his chairs and furniture. Note the carving on the sides of the back stiles and the carved design on the sub-pediment crest. Obviously, these chairs were either made by Werner or by two makers familiar with this specific design. So, can the unsigned chair be attributed to Werner?